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An uninterruptible power supply, also uninterruptible power source, UPS is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically the utility mains, fails.

The line-interactive UPS supplies power to the load through the bypass path with output from the inverter when grid power is normal. The inverter acts as a charger at this time. In the event of a black out, the inverter converts DC current from the battery to AC for output to the load.


  • The bi-directional conversion design reduces the time required for charging the UPS battery.
  • Requires a certain conversion time.
  • The complex control mechanism makes it more expensive.
  • This technology is mainly characterized by a constant quality of power supply throughout any disturbance or fluctuation. An On-Line UPS does not constantly supply energy from the batteries, but rather the current is regenerated through the transformation of the alternating current to direct current and vice versa. In this way, it is possible to isolate the load of any fluctuation in the input current.. The on-line UPS supplies power to the load by output from the inverter and uses the bypass path only in a case where the UPS itself fails, is overloaded, or overheats.

    The definition of a crest factor is the relationship between the surge current and the RMS current as it leaves the UPS. The crest factor for a resistive, capacitative or inductive lineal load or a combination of any of the three, is SQR[2]=1.41. However, for non-lineal loads, the crest factor is much higher and in some cases can even be higher than 2.5. A UPS that can provide crest factors of around 3 is a unit which is capable of providing a power supply for almost all of the loads that are currently on the market. The higher said parameter is, the better said UPS will handle non-lineal loads.

    Most commercially available UPS now express their capacity as VA. V stands for voltage and A for current in amps. In short, VA equals the power and capacity of a UPS. For example, a UPS of 500VA capacity with an output of 110V will provide a maximum current of 4.55A and more than this will lead to overload. The unit of power can be expressed in Watts. While the Watt indicates active power, VA indicates reactive power and Watt equals VA multiplied by the power factor (VA × pf = Watt). There is no common criterion for power factor (pf). Generally a value of between 0.6 and 0.8 is acceptable while a value of 0.5 may represent poor design. Pay attention to this value when purchasing a UPS. A high power factor implies better utilization and more economical use of power

    An inverter converts direct voltage from batteries or direct bus to alternating voltage, normally 220 Vca with output stabilization and in the form of a 50 Hz sinusoidal wave. This wave is often cleaner that the one obtained from the electrical network. The sinusoidal inverters are used to supply all kinds of load, whereas the "square", "pseudo sinusoidal" or "modified sinusoidal" wave shape has certain limitations given its effect on inductive or capacitative loads. It is also important to mention that the noise or interference that can cause equipment such as precision instrumentation, telecommunication, etc. to function incorrectly. The main advantage is the price as it is often less than half what a sinusoidal device would cost for similar power

    The galvanized isolation built into the converter separates the input circuit from the output circuit, this enables polarity changes or the collection of floating outputs

    kVA is the abbreviation for Kilovolt-Amperes (VA). The power is breaks down like this: • Apparent power S: measured in VA • Active Power P: measured in W • Reactive power Q: measured in VAR • S= P + Q • P= S * cos (fi) The most-widely used power measurement in the world for UPS's is apparent power (S) measured in VA or kVA.

    Alternating Current (AC) is the electrical current that changes polarity. That is, its instantaneous voltage changes in time from 0 to a positive maximum, returns to zero and continues to another negative maximum, and so on. The standardized Alternating Current is a type of sinusoidal wave. The commercial supply of electrical energy generally used today, is done in alternating current (AC)

    Direct Current (DC) is the direct flow of electricity through a conductor between two points with different potentials. As opposed to Alternating Current, in this case, the electrical charges always circulate in the same direction from the greatest point of potential to the lower potential. Although Direct Current is often identified as constant current (for example, that which is supplied by a battery), any current that always maintains the same polarity is considered direct.

    Photovoltaics (PV) or solar cells as they are often referred to, are semiconductor devices that convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electricity.
    Groups of PV cells are electrically configured into modules and arrays, which can be used to charge batteries, operate motors, and to power any number of electrical loads.
    With the appropriate power conversion equipment, PV systems can produce alternating current (AC) compatible with any conventional appliances, and operate in parallel with and interconnected to the utility grid

    Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather). Other reasons batteries are used in PV systems are to operate the PV array near its maximum power point, to power electrical loads at stable voltages, and to supply surge currents to electrical loads and inverters. In most cases, a battery charge controller is used in these systems to protect the battery from overcharge and over discharge

    Always keep the surface of the Solar Panel clean and free of dust. Simply clean it with a damp cloth if needed . Scratches on the surface of the solar panels will reduce the performance of the power generated, but it will not stop the panel from generating power. Avoid the scratch as much as possible so it is best to avoid scratching them. Cracks or Holes might permanently damage the Solar Panel.

    The Solar Panel would withstand the normal drop or handled in a rough way. But they can be broken.

    To maximize the output of the Solar Panel, face the panels towards the Sun whenever it is possible